Uncertainties in Internal Radiation Dose Assessment

Uncertainties in Internal Radiation Dose Assessment
NCRP Report

Executive Summary:

The objective of this Report is to review the current state-of-knowledge of uncertainties in internal dose assessments, including uncertainties in the measurements that are used to perform these assessments. In a previously published report (NCRP, 2007), the current state-of-knowledge of uncertainties in external radiation measurements and dosimetry was reviewed. The scope of this Report is limited to internal radiation exposure. It is intended to be used primarily by radiation dosimetrists, including health physicists, radiation protection professionals, and medical physicists who need to evaluate of the uncertainties in estimates of absorbed doses. The scope of application ranges from the improvement of routine dosimetry procedures to the reconstruction of individual doses in epidemiological studies to treatment planning for therapeutic nuclear medicine. Sections 1 to 4 are descriptive in nature and do not present a high level of technical difficulty and so may provide useful knowledge to health physicists, radiation protection professionals, and medical physicists who are involved in the assessment of doses from internal sources of radiation. Sections 5 to 10 are more technical and address issues of interest to health physicists involved in the assessment of uncertainties. The appendices, in which details of various methods and models are presented, are meant to be read by those scientists interested in a particular issue.

Available  at    : NCRP Publications

Automated Ultrasonic Testing for Pipeline Girth Welds

Automated Ultrasonic Testing for Pipeline Girth Welds


Olympus NDT, a global innovator in nondestructive testing instruments, is proud to announce the publication of NDT expert E. A. Ginzel’s Automated Ultrasonic Testing for Pipeline Girth Welds. This 366-page book provides an overview of the principles of automated ultrasonic testing (AUT) of girth welds, and explains the many parameters that influence the results of these inspections. Ginzel discusses some of the more experimental aspects of the process including sizing and acceptance criteria, and examines basic AUT concepts as applied by the major players in the industry and considers future enhancements.

Available at    : Olympus

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Manual of Concrete Inspection

Manual of Concrete Inspection
by ACI (American Concrete Institute)


This manual is intended to guide, assist, and instruct concrete inspectors and others engaged in concrete construction and testing, including field engineers, construction superintendants, supervisors, laboratory and field technicians, and workers. Designers may also find the manual to be a valuable reference by using the information to better adapt their designs to the realities of field construction. Because of the diverse possible uses of the manual and the varied backgrounds of the readers, it includes the reasoning behind the technical instructions.

The field of concrete construction has expanded dramatically over the years to reflect the many advances that have taken place in the concrete industry. Although many of the fundamentals presented in previous editions of this manual remain relevant and technically correct, this tenth edition incorporates new material to address these advances in technology. A list of only a few of the recent developments in materials, equipment, and processes includes:

* Shrinkage-compensating cement;
* Increased use of supplementary cementitious materials (SCMs);
* Polymer-modified mixtures;
* Self-consolidating concretes;
* New and refined admixtures;
* Fiber-reinforced concrete;
* Epoxy resins;
* High-capacity and automated production equipment;
* High-performance and high-strength concrete; and
* Epoxy-coated and stainless steel-clad reinforcement.

The need to cover new issues affecting inspection is the reason ACI Committee 311 continues to revise the ACI Manual of Concrete Inspection.

In preparing this edition of the manual, as with previous editions, the committee’s task was to interpret the policies set forth by other authorized bodies rather than to make policy on construction practices. The main emphasis of the manual is on the technical aspects of inspection and construction. For further information about construction practices, readers are encouraged to refer to the ACI Manual of Concrete Practice.

Because the content of this manual is general and broad in nature, no part of the manual should be included by reference in contract documents. Applicable inspection requirements for each project should be determined and included in the specifications.


Chapter 1—Inspection and the inspector,

1.1—Inspection processes
1.1.1—Why inspection is needed
1.1.2—Purposes of inspection
1.1.3—Owner and contractor inspections
1.2.2—Education and certification
1.2.4—Relations with contractors, supervisors, and workers
1.3—Importance of clear specifications

Chapter 2—Statistical concepts for quality assurance,
2.1—Quality-control and quality-acceptance inspections
2.2—Traditional quality assurance
2.3—Statistical concepts and procedures
2.4—Basic statistical concepts
2.4.2—Normal distribution curves
2.4.3—Applying normal distribution curves to concrete compressive strength
2.5—Statistical tools
2.5.1—Frequency distributions
2.5.2—Control charts

Chapter 3—Inspection and testing of materials,
3.1.1—Standard types
3.1.2—Blended cements and other hydraulic cements
3.1.3—Optional requirements
3.1.4—Sampling and testing procedures
3.5—Steel reinforcement
3.6—Curing compounds
3.7—Joint materials

Chapter 4—Handling and storage of materials,
4.1.1—Storage and hauling of bulk cement
4.1.2—Storage of bagged cement
4.2.1—Storage in stockpiles
4.2.2—Storage in bins
4.2.3—Finish screening
4.3—Supplementary cementitious materials

Chapter 5—Fundamentals of concrete,
5.1—Nature of concrete
5.1.2—Water-cementitious material ratio
5.2—Fresh concrete
5.2.3—Hydration, setting, and hardening
5.2.4—Heat of hydration
5.3—Hardened concrete
5.3.4—Chemical attack
5.3.5—Freezing-and-thawing effects
5.3.6—Alkali-aggregate reactivity
5.3.7—Volume changes

Chapter 6—Proportioning and control of concrete mixtures,
6.1—Factors to consider
6.2—Methods of specifying concrete proportions
6.2.1—Strength specifications
6.2.2—Prescriptive specifications
6.3—Proportioning for specified strength or w/cm
6.3.1—Cement types
6.4—Concrete with supplementary cementitious materials
6.4.1—Mixture proportioning and control
6.4.2—Water-cementitious material ratio
6.4.3—Aggregate selection
6.4.4—Air entrainment
6.4.5—Quantity of paste
6.4.6—Proportion of fine-to-coarse aggregate
6.5—Proportioning for resistance to severe exposure conditions
6.5.1—Paste quality
6.5.2—Required air entrainment
6.5.3—Aggregate proportions
6.5.4—Proportioning by absolute volume
6.5.5—Computing absolute volume and percentage of solids
6.5.6—Example of proportioning by absolute volume
6.6—Control of concrete proportions
6.6.1—Laboratory batch quantities
6.6.2—Field batch quantities
6.6.3—Field control of selected proportions
6.7—Computations for yield
6.7.1—Density method

Chapter 7—Batching and mixing,
7.1—Batching operations
7.1.1—Measurement tolerances
7.1.2—Weighing equipment
7.1.3—Batching equipment
7.1.4—Measuring water
7.1.5—Measuring admixtures
7.2—Mixing operations
7.2.1—Central or site mixing
7.2.2—Ready mixed concrete
7.2.3—Volumetric batching and mixing
7.3—Plant inspection
7.3.1—Control of water content
7.3.2—Control of air content
7.3.3—Control of temperature
7.4—Placing inspection
7.4.1—Control of slump loss
7.4.2—Control of consistency
7.4.3—Measuring concrete quantity

Chapter 8—Inspection before concreting,
8.1—Preliminary study
8.2—Stages of preparatory work
8.3—Excavations and foundations
8.3.1—Building slabs-on-ground
8.3.2—Building foundations
8.3.3—Underwater placements
8.3.4—Pile foundations
8.4—Forms for buildings
8.4.1—Form tightness and alignment
8.4.3—Preventing bulging and settlement
8.4.4—Coating for release
8.4.5—Form reuse and maintenance
8.5.1—Cutting and bending
8.5.2—Storage and handling
8.6.1—Cover depth
8.6.2—Splicing, welding, and anchoring
8.7—Embedded fixtures
8.9—Final inspection before placing

Chapter 9—Concreting operations,
9.1—Placing conditions
9.2—Handling of concrete
9.5—Construction joints

Chapter 10—Form removal, reshoring, curing, and protection,
10.1—Removal of forms and supports
10.1.1—Time of removal
10.1.2—Multistory work
10.2—Protection from damage
10.3.1—Moist curing
10.3.2—Membrane curing
10.3.3—Impermeable sheets
10.3.4—Accelerated curing
10.4—Curing and protection during weather extremes
10.4.1—Cold weather
10.4.2—Hot weather

Chapter 11—Postconstruction inspection of concrete,
11.1—Acceptance inspection
11.2—Visual inspection (condition survey)
11.3—Other roles and responsibilities
11.3.1—Nondestructive evaluation (NDE)
11.3.2—Destructive testing
11.4—Observations leading to repair/rehabilitation
11.4.1—Minor defects
11.4.2—Structural defects

Chapter 12—Slabs for buildings,
12.1—Positioning of reinforcement
12.2—Mixture requirements
12.3.1—Subgrade and subbase
12.3.2—Placing and consolidation of concrete
12.3.4—Hardened surfaces
12.3.5—Two-course construction and special toppings
12.3.6—Curing and protection
12.4—Structural slabs
12.5—Joint construction

Chapter 13—Pavement slabs and bridge decks,
13.1—Foundation (subgrade and subbase course)
13.1.1—Fine grading
13.1.2—Stabilized base
13.3—Steel reinforcement
13.4.2—Mixture proportioning
13.4.3—Batching and mixing
13.5—Paving operations
13.6—Final acceptance
13.7.1—Transverse contraction joints
13.7.2—Transverse construction joints
13.7.3—Longitudinal contraction joints
13.7.4—Longitudinal construction joints
13.7.5—Expansion joints
13.7.6—Joint sealing
13.8—Bridge decks

Chapter 14—Architectural concrete,
14.1—Determining requirements for acceptability
14.1.1—Preconstruction samples
14.2—Importance of uniformity
14.5—Concrete materials and mixture proportions
14.6—Batching, mixing, and transporting
14.7—Placing and consolidation
14.8—Surface treatments
14.8.2—Bush hammering
14.8.4—Manual treatment
14.8.5—Exposed-aggregate finishes
14.9—Curing and protection
14.11—Precast members
14.11.1—Storage and transportation
14.12—Final acceptance
14.12.1—Bug holes
14.12.2—Color variations

Chapter 15—Special concreting methods,
15.1—Slipforming vertical structures
15.2—Slipforming cast-in-place pipe
15.2.2—Control of concrete placement
15.3—Tilt-up construction
15.4—Lift-slab construction
15.5—Preplaced-aggregate concrete
15.5.1—Aggregate placement
15.5.2—Grout materials and mixing
15.5.3—Grouting operations
15.6—Underwater concrete construction
15.7—Vacuum dewatering of concrete
15.7.1—Equipment and methods
15.7.2—Reduction in slab thickness
15.8—Pumped concrete
15.9.1—Shotcreting processes
15.9.2—Mixture proportions
15.9.4—Forms and ground wires
15.9.5—Surface finishing
15.9.6—Curing and protection
15.9.7—Control testing

Chapter 16—Special types of concrete,
16.1—Structural lightweight-aggregate concrete
16.2—Lightweight fill concrete
16.3—Low-density concrete
16.4—Heavyweight concrete
16.5—Mass concrete for dams
16.6—Structural mass concrete
16.7—Shrinkage-compensating concrete
16.8—High-performance concrete

Chapter 17—Precast and prestressed concrete,
17.1—Precast concrete
17.2—Precast prestressed concrete
17.2.1—Concrete materials
17.2.2—Tendons for pretensioning
17.2.3—Tendon handling and storage
17.2.4—Attachments for tendons
17.2.5—Deflection devices
17.2.6—Tensioning of tendons
17.2.7—Wire failure in tendons
17.3—Cast-in-place prestressed concrete
17.3.1—Concrete materials
17.3.2—Post-tensioning tendons
17.3.3—Anchorages and tensioning
17.3.4—Grouting procedures
17.3.5—Postconstruction inspection

Chapter 18—Grout, mortar, and stucco, p. 140
18.1—Pressure grouting
18.2—Grouting under base plates and machine bases
18.2.1—Damp-pack mortar
18.2.2—Gas-forming grouts
18.2.3—Catalyzed metallic grouts
18.2.4—Cementitious systems
18.2.5—Nonshrink grouts
18.3—Mortar and stucco

Chapter 19—Testing of concrete,
19.2—Tests of freshly mixed concrete
19.2.2—Air content
19.2.3—Density of freshly mixed concrete: ASTM C138/
19.3—Strength tests
19.3.1—Compressive strength: ASTM C31/C31M, C192/C192M, and C39/C39M
19.3.2—Capping cylindrical concrete specimens for compressive strength tests: ASTM C617
19.3.3—Use of unbonded caps for compressive strength tests: ASTM C1231/C1231M
19.3.4—Testing concrete cylinders: ASTM C39/C39M
19.3.5—Flexural strength of concrete: ASTM C31/C31M, C192/C192M, C78, and C293
19.3.6—Molding flexural specimens
19.3.7—Curing flexural specimens
19.3.8—Testing beams for flexural strength
19.3.9—Splitting tensile strength of cylindrical concrete specimens: ASTM C496/C496M
19.3.10—Compressive strength of lightweight insulating concrete: ASTM C495
19.4—Accelerated curing of test specimens
19.5—Uniformity tests of mixers
19.6—Density of structural lightweight concrete
19.7—Tests of completed structures
19.7.1—Cores from hardened concrete
19.7.2—Load tests
19.7.3—Nondestructive tests
19.8—Shipping and handling samples

Chapter 20—Records and reports,
20.1—General information
20.2—Specific information
20.3—Maintaining records

Available    at    : ACI Bookstore

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Future of Electrical Energy Storage

Future of Electrical Energy Storage


The Future of Electrical Energy Storage is a management report that analyses the future of electrical energy storage and how the advancing use of renewable energy, particularly wind power, will change the perception of storage and lead to significant increase it its use.

Understand the key drivers and resistors of electrical energy storage and its impact on the landscape with the help of this report…

Some key findings from this report

• There is just 90GW of electricity storage capacity in operation – around 3% of global capacity, which is much lower than in other energy industries.
• As an emerging group of technologies, estimates on the cost of electrical energy storage vary widely, on average by more than 100% and typically much higher in battery technologies.
• Capacitors are the most efficient of the existing electrical energy storage technologies with a round trip efficiency of >95%, while hydrogen storage is, by a large margin, the least efficient technology.
• The US and Japan are the global leaders in large scale pumped storage hydropower plants with 9 and 12 plants respectively, compared to just 1 each in the UK, France and Australia.
• Based on an analysis of fixed and variable costs, batteries are currently the most expensive technologies – a key limiting factor compared to more mature alternatives such as pumped storage hydropower.

This new report will enable you to:

• Identify the leading technologies for electrical energy storage, their development status and application with this report’s in–depth analysis of the 7 leading electrical energy technologies (Pumped-storage hydropower, compressed air energy storage, batteries, flywheels, hydrogen storage, capacitors and superconducting magnetic energy storage), their development and future application.
• Compare the cost of different electrical energy storage technologies in terms of capital, fixed and variable costs from data found in this report.
• Understand the economics of electrical energy storage and the key factors that will drive economic competitiveness of each technology.
• Assess the future potential for energy storage and the role of growing renewable energy capacity as a market driver.

Available  at   : EnergyBusinessReport

Water and Wastewater Calculations Manual, 2nd Ed

Water and Wastewater Calculations Manual, 2nd Ed
Shun Lin (Author), C. Lee (Author)

Product Description

Quick Access to the Latest Calculations and Examples for Solving All Types of Water and Wastewater Problems!

The Second Edition of Water and Wastewater Calculations Manual provides step-by-step calculations for solving a myriad of water and wastewater problems. Designed for quick-and-easy access to information, this revised and updated Second Edition contains over 110 detailed illustrations and new material throughout.

Written by the internationally renowned Shun Dar Lin, this expert resource offers techniques and examples in all sectors of water and wastewater treatment. Using both SI and US customary units, the Second Edition of Water and Wastewater Calculations Manual features:

* Coverage of stream sanitation, lake and impoundment management, and groundwater
* Conversion factors, water flow calculations, hydraulics in pipes, weirs, orifices, and open channels, distribution, outlets, and quality issues
* In-depth emphasis on drinking water treatment and water pollution control technologies
* Calculations specifically keyed to regulation requirements
* New to this edition: regulation updates, pellet softening, membrane filtration, disinfection by-products, health risks, wetlands, new and revised examples using field data

Inside this Updated Environmental Reference Tool
• Streams and Rivers • Lakes and Reservoirs • Groundwater • Fundamental and Treatment Plant Hydraulics • Public Water Supply • Wastewater Engineering • Appendices: Macro invertebrate Tolerance List • Well Function for Confined Aquifers • Solubility Product Constants for Solution at or near Room Temperature • Freundlich Adsorption Isotherm Constants for Toxic Organic Compounds • Conversion Factors

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Fundamentals of Hydraulic Engineering Systems

Fundamentals of Hydraulic Engineering Systems


This book provides a fundamental treatment of engineering hydraulics. It is intended to bridge the gap between basic principles and techniques applied to design and analysis of hydraulic engineering systems. This text exposes students to many problems commonly encountered in practice, various solution scenarios (e.g., design formulas, tables, and computer software) that are written by one of the largest commercial vendors of hydrology and hydraulics software.

Available   at    : Amazon

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Heat Transfer Applications for the Practicing Engineer

Heat Transfer Applications for the Practicing Engineer


This book serves as a training tool for individuals in industry and academia involved with heat transfer applications. Although the literature is inundated with texts emphasizing theory and theoretical derivations, the goal of this book is to present the subject of heat transfer from a strictly pragmatic point of view.

The book is divided into four Parts: Introduction, Principles, Equipment Design Procedures and Applications, and ABET-related Topics. The first Part provides a series of chapters concerned with introductory topics that are required when solving most engineering problems, including those in heat transfer. The second Part of the book is concerned with heat transfer principles. Topics that receive treatment include Steady-state Heat Conduction, Unsteady-state Heat Conduction, Forced Convection, Free Convection, Radiation, Boiling and Condensation, and Cryogenics. Part three (considered the heart of the book) addresses heat transfer equipment design procedures and applications. In addition to providing a detailed treatment of the various types of heat exchangers, this part also examines the impact of entropy calculations on exchanger design, and operation, maintenance and inspection (OM&I), plus refractory and insulation effects. The concluding Part of the text examines ABET (Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology) related topics of concern, including economies and finance, numerical methods, open-ended problems, ethics, environmental management, and safety and accident management.

Available   at    : Amazon

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Fundamentals of Eddy Current Testing

Fundamentals of Eddy Current Testing


This book provides a thorough examination of the basic theory and principles behind eddy current testing.Contents: electrical theory; electromagnetism; inductive reactance and impedance; eddy current test principles; coils, instruments and standards; and impedance-plane response.

Author(s): Hagemaier, Donald J.
Publisher: ASNT
Year: 1990
Pages: 92

Available  at    : ASNT Shop

Handbook on Plastic Analysis in Engineering

Handbook on Plastic Analysis in Engineering

by Leonid Belenkiy (2006)

This is a comprehensive reference source on practical applications of plastic analysis for a wide scope of structures used in marine and other industries. The book is addressed to virtually all structural engineers involved in design, stress analysis, research, rule development, and advanced academic studies in shipbuilding, offshore and other fields.
1055 pages ♦ ISBN 0-9742019-2-8 ♦ Hard Cover

Available   at    :     SNAME Publications