Building Storm Water Systems – Plumbing Systems and Design

Building Storm Water Systems
Plumbing Systems and Design 2006; Vol. 5: No. 3
by Stenqvist, James E

An ever-growing number of considerations that apply to storm water system design have greatly increased the complexity of the task. Design criteria, including local codes, climatic conditions (such as rainfall rate), and relevant building construction details must be determined first. Careful upfront work will help avoid misapplications and undersizing the system. The large-diameter pipe required for storm water systems can be problematic for horizontal routing designs. Suggestions for solving this problem are presented. Vertical leaders, overflow drainage, wall and floor cleanouts at the base of the riser, and storm and sanitary discharge into sewers are also discussed. Consultation with the structural engineer, civil engineer, and architect can ensure that both performance and aesthetic concerns are addressed. A detailed checklist accompanies the article.

Available  at   : ASPE Publications

Basic Units and Concepts in Radiation Exposures

Basic Units and Concepts in Radiation Exposures

R. L. Mlekodaj

Radiation and Public Perception,
Chapter 3, pp 23–37
PubDate : May 05, 1995
American Chemical Society

Some of the most common units, concepts, and models in use today dealing with radiation exposures and their associated risks will be presented. Discussions toward a better understanding of some of the basic difficulties in quantifying risks associated with low levels of radiation will be presented. The main thrust of this chapter will be on laying a foundation for better understanding and appreciation of the chapters to follow.

Available  at   : ACS Publications

Plumbing Design for Health Care Facilities – Plumbing Systems and Design

Plumbing Design for Health Care Facilities
Plumbing Systems and Design 22006; Vol. 5: No. 2
by Anon.

This continuing education article covers a myriad of topics that pertain to the design of plumbing systems for health care facilities, laboratories, and research facilities. Major topics include plumbing fixtures and related equipment, laboratory waste and vent systems, the water supply system, and pure-water systems. Regardless of the system under consideration, one necessary task is repeated time and again: consultation. Consult with the architect; consult and meet with the facility staff and professionals; consult with the equipment manufacturers authorized representative; consult with local administrative authorities. Health-care facilities may be exempt from certain codes, but subject to standards that do not apply to other types of buildings. The article begins with general requirements, which is a laundry list of standards that apply to plumbing systems in health care facilities. Fixtures and related equipment are then discussed relative to specific areas of the health-care facility including general use and public areas, patient rooms, ward rooms, nurseries, emergency rooms, intensive-care rooms, examination rooms, treatment rooms, physical therapy rooms, other facilities for the treatment of patients. Within the context of each of these specific areas, there is a discussion of the various plumbing fixtures that are required, the need for particular materials, and specialized requirements that may apply. Fixture types are listed by medical-care area in a lengthy table. Important considerations for kitchens and laundries in health-care facilities include equipment utility requirements. Rough-in drawings of equipment in these areas are usually provided by the architect or consultant. Laboratory rooms can require a variety of sinks, washing equipment, service outlets for laboratory air and gas, and emergency showers and eye-wash stations. The usual location of equipment within a laboratory room or series of rooms is detailed. A small section of the article is devoted to plumbing needs of specialized equipment such as dialysis machines, electron microscopes, stills for producing distilled water, sterilizers, film processing equipment, dental equipment, etc. The next major section covers laboratories, which in addition to sanitary drainage, require specialized drainage systems for the removal of corrosive waste. Conditions under which special waste and vent systems are required are detailed. The costs and benefits of different types of corrosive waste system piping are discussed and include borosilicate glass, polypropylene, double-containment piping, and high-silicon cast iron. Sizing should take into consideration both future expansion and cleaning. As with waste piping, vent piping must be made of approved corrosion-resistant material. Neutralization tanks are often necessary to treat acid waste prior to disposal into a public sewer. A tank sizing table is presented. Acid-waste solids interceptors are discussed, as is acid-waste metering that is required by some local authorities. Laboratory sinks are provided with p-traps, drum traps, or centrifugal drum traps. The final topic is water supply systems for medical and health-care facilities. Specifically, potable, non-potable, and pure water systems are discussed. General considerations include dual domestic water services, water-conservation provisions, use of supply tanks to ameliorate fluctuating supply and unusual demand, diversity factors for sizing the system, and protection of potable water from contamination. Cold and hot water, chilled water, controlled-temperature water, and hot water recirculation are all discussed under the heading of potable water systems. Pure-water systems include distillation, deionization, and reverse osmosis. Pure-water systems have particular piping requirements and the costs and benefits of a number of types are presented. Non-potable water systems are touched upon.

Available  at   : ASPE Publications

Radiation and Public Perception – Benefit and Risks

Radiation and Public Perception
Benefits and Risks

Editor(s): Jack P. Young1, Rosalyn S. Yalow2
Volume 243
Publication Date (Print): May 05, 1995
American Chemical Society


Radiation and Public Perception
Public Perception of Radiation Risks
Basic Units and Concepts in Radiation Exposures
Department of Energy Radiation Health Studies
The U.S. Transuranium and Uranium Registries
Lung Cancer Mortality and Radon Exposure
Evidence of Cancer Risk from Experimental Animal Radon Studies
Evaluating the Safety of Irradiated Foods
Cancer Incidence and Mortality after Iodine-131 Therapy for Hyperthyroidism
The Genetic Effects of Human Exposures to Ionizing Radiation
Studies of Children In Utero during Atomic Bomb Detonations
Cancer Risks among Atomic Bomb Survivors
A Health Assessment of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Accident
Health Studies of U.S. Women Radium Dial Workers
Evaluating Health Risks in Communities near Nuclear Facilities
Health Effects on Populations Exposed to Low-Level Radiation in China
Health and Mortality among Contractor Employees at U.S. Department of Energy Facilities
Does Nuclear Power Have a Future?
Science, Society, and U.S. Nuclear Waste

Available  at   : ACS Publications

Public Perception of Radiation Risks

Public Perception of Radiation Risks

William R. Hendee
Radiation and Public Perception,
Chapter 2, pp 13–22
Pub Date : May, 1995


The evolution of advanced civilization has yielded works of art and science, complex financial and political systems, and technology-driven societies such as the United States. Yet as the sophistication of these societies has increased, human self-perception has diminished. One consequence of this suppressed self-image has been a growing distrust of science and certain technologies such as nuclear energy and radiation. This apprehension has been nurtured by the news and entertainment media and has partially compromised the benefits that these technologies offer. Realization of these benefits requires a restoration of self-confidence in our ability to use technologies beneficially.

Available  at   : ACS Publications

A Health Assessment of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Accident

A Health Assessment of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Accident
Fred A. Mettler, Jr., and , Jonathan E. Briggs
Radiation and Public Perception,
Chapter 13, pp 161–168
Pub Date : May, 1995


In 1989 the then Soviet government requested that the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) assess the steps it took to protect the health of villagers in areas surrounding the site of the 1986 Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident. The International Chernobyl Project (ICP) performed the assessment. “Task 4” of the ICP studied sample populations from three Soviet republics. Teams of physicians from several nations visited seven “control” (uncontaminated) and six “contaminated” villages to obtain in-depth medical histories on and to perform extensive physical examinations of over 1300 persons. No adverse health effects directly attributable to radiation were found by Task 4. Many of the villagers demonstrated increased stress and anxiety related to the accident, but no significant differences were seen between residents of the contaminated and the control villages. However, a high incidence of hypertension, poor dental health, and obesity in the population samples from all the villages did exist. Although it was too early to see increases in leukemia and solid tumors in the populations examined, the authors expect that there will be increases in the incidence of both these types of cancers over the next several decades.

Available  at   : ACS Publications

Laboratory Pure Water

Laboratory Pure Water
Plumbing Systems and Design 2005; Vol. 4: No. 6
by Stenqvist, James E.


Water is everywhere. One might think water from the tap that is clear and tastes all right is pure, but it is not enough so for laboratory use. Water picks up pollutants when it touches the ground?s surface and minerals when it permeates the ground. It also contains dissolved gases and dirt from the air. Contaminants that might be found in water include particulates, dissolved inorganic solids and gases, dissolved organics, micro-organisms, and pyrogens. Standards for laboratory pure water are published by several scientific, medical, or other groups. The National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards, which is now known as the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute, lists four categories, from the purest to water with certain contaminants removed. When the type of water needed is determined, a process can be set up to create it. They include reverse osmosis, filtration, and electrodialysis. The various processes are explained, and there is an accompanying checklist for design process, flow rates, distribution, distribution piping, storage tank, water hardness classifications, filtration, commissioning, pipe materials, and validation. Attached is a water pipe sizing table.

Available  at   : ASPE Publications

Compressed Air Systems – Plumbing Systems and Design

Compressed Air Systems
Plumbing Systems and Design (PSD) 2007; Vol. 6: No. 7

by Stenqvist, James E.

Compressed air, used in a myriad of industrial and commercial applications, is costly to manufacture, but the tools that it runs have numerous advantages over those powered by other energy sources. A well-designed compressed air system reduces energy costs, maintenance requirements, and equipment failures while increasing production efficiencies. James E. Stenqvist discusses system layout, recommending a loop design over a dead-ended tree design for greater efficiency, and detailing the loop design advantages. The main components of any compressed air system are the air compressor, compressed air dryer, and compressed air receiver. Each of these components is discussed according to function and available types. The last part of the article is given over to a listing of checks and tests that should be performed on the system at startup. Design standards for compressed air systems are listed. The article includes a full-page design checklist.

Available  at   : ASPE Publications

Concrete Pavement Design, Construction, and Performance

Concrete Pavement Design, Construction, and Performance

Author: Norbert Delatte
Year of Publication: 2008
Number of Pages: 392


Published by Taylor and Francis

A pavement project may be envisioned as a three-link chain, consisting of materials, design, and construction. Because the weakest link governs the performance of the system, engineers must be knowledgeable of all three aspects as well as their interactions. This book is a synthesis of the three aspects, with special emphasis on what engineers have learned about concrete pavement design in moving from empirical and mechanistic approaches into the current AASHTO M-EPDG procedure that combines both approaches.

Delatte introduces pavement performance by first describing the modes of pavement distress and causes for the distress. The chapter on subgrades and subbases puts heavy emphasis on design of subdrainage and side drains using a FHWA computer program, followed by chapters that briefly cover materials and mixture design and proportioning.

The bulk of the book deals with the design of highways and light-duty, airport, and industrial pavements. A description of construction, maintenance, and rehabilitation procedures complete the text, which is extensively references in documents from ACI, ACPA, PCA, TRB, and other concrete pavement resources.


1. Introduction
2. Types of concrete pavements
3. Performance
4. Subgrades, subbases, and drainage
5. Selection of concrete materials
6. Mixture design and proportioning
7. Design fundamentals
8. Highway pavement design
9. Light duty pavement design
10. Airport pavement design
11. Industrial pavement design
12. Transitions, special details, and CRCP reinforcement
13. Subgrade and subbase construction
14. Paving
15. Finishing, texturing, curing, and joint sawing and sealing
16. Concrete pavement maintenance
17. Rehabilitation
18. Overlays and inlays

Available   at     : ACI Bookstore

Related Free Documents :
Standard Practice for Concrete Pavements

Standard Practice for Pavement Recycling
Standard Practice for Flexible Pavements

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Guide for Concrete Plant Inspection and Testing of Ready-Mixed Concrete

Guide for Concrete Plant Inspection and Testing of Ready-Mixed Concrete

Author: ACI
Year of Publication: 2004
Number of Pages: 6


This guide is intended for use in establishing basic duties and reports required of inspection personnel. It can be used for all types and sizes of projects but should be supplemented with additional inspection requirements when the complexity of the project so dictates. Refer to ACI 311.4R for guidance on additional requirements and to SP-2 for more detailed information on concrete production practices and inspection and testing of concrete.

This guide recommends minimum requirements for inspection at the concrete plant when such inspections are required by specifications or the owner. It also recommends minimum requirements for field and laboratory testing of concrete. It is intended for use by specifiers, architects, engineers, owners, contractors, or other groups needing to monitor the ready-mixed concrete producers’ activities at the concrete plant and concreting activities at the project site through the use of an independent inspection agency or in-house inspection organization.

This guide also recommends minimum testing laboratory qualifications, minimum inspector qualifications, duties, and reports.


Chapter 1—Plant inspection of ready-mixed concrete
1.1—Introduction and scope
1.2—Inspector qualifications
1.3—Inspector duties

Chapter 2—Testing of ready-mixed concrete,
2.1—Introduction and scope
2.3—Testing laboratory
2.5—Testing high-strength concrete

Chapter 3—References
3.1—Referenced standards and reports
3.2—Other references
3.3—Laboratory evaluation and accreditation agencies

Available  at    : ACI Bookstore