Water purification pdf papers, manual, reports, practices, handbook, lecture notes
Water treatment pdf papers, ebooks, lecture notes, manuals
A 12-Step Program for Avoiding Liability for Hot Water System Injuries.
Plumbing Systems and Design 2007; Vol. 6: No. 1
by Wise, Donald
Plumbing engineers, designers, contractors, maintenance, and operating personnel are often involved in litigation concerning liability for injuries sustained by the users of hot water systems. For example, scald injuries and legionella danger occur when hot water is not maintained at an optimal temperature. These dangers are greatest for the old and the young. These age groups will grow in absolute and relative numbers in the United States for some time to come. Thus, litigation regarding hot water injuries is anticipated to increase. Hot water injuries are preventable. Implementation of best practices for hot water systems is a prudent step. Based on existing industry standards and guidelines, these best practices apply to the design, build, operate, and maintenance aspects of hot water systems. Practices to directly control hot water systems include: 1. Minimize hot water temperature. Methods to bring water to taps within a variety of systems at a temperature of approximately 122 degrees are presented, along with reasons behind this temperature choice. Legionella-contaminated systems are also discussed. 2. Point-of-use, pressure-regulated thermostatic mixing valves are required on new bathing installations. Install on kitchen taps, where not required, to prevent scalds. Retrofit existing showers and baths with cutoff devices. 3. Install redundant protection to ensure that water too hot for safety does not reach taps. Redundancy for small and large systems is discussed. 4. Verify and document hot water system performance by testing under a variety of conditions prior to placing into service. Ongoing testing and periodic monitoring for legionella bacteria are recommended. 5. Recirculate water continuously. Use of energy management systems on recirculating hot water systems can result in pockets of water that rise above or fall below safety levels. 6. Properly size pipes to ensure that a system does not experience surges of hot water as a result of instantaneous demand at another fixture. 7. Maintain the domestic hot water system or ensure that building owners understand the need to do so. 8. Adjust mixing valves on central boilers to accommodate fluctuations in ambient temperature and demand. 9. Prevent mineral deposit buildup that can decrease pipe diameters and provide conditions that allow legionella bacteria to grow. 10. Periodically assess the hot water system to help identify when design conditions have changed and adjustments are necessary. 11. Do not increase water temperatures in an attempt to meet the needs of an inadequate or aging hot water system. 12. Replace damaged parts, particularly mixing valves.
Available at : ASPE Publications
Water and Wastewater Calculations Manual, 2nd Ed
Shun Lin (Author), C. Lee (Author)
Quick Access to the Latest Calculations and Examples for Solving All Types of Water and Wastewater Problems!
The Second Edition of Water and Wastewater Calculations Manual provides step-by-step calculations for solving a myriad of water and wastewater problems. Designed for quick-and-easy access to information, this revised and updated Second Edition contains over 110 detailed illustrations and new material throughout.
Written by the internationally renowned Shun Dar Lin, this expert resource offers techniques and examples in all sectors of water and wastewater treatment. Using both SI and US customary units, the Second Edition of Water and Wastewater Calculations Manual features:
* Coverage of stream sanitation, lake and impoundment management, and groundwater
* Conversion factors, water flow calculations, hydraulics in pipes, weirs, orifices, and open channels, distribution, outlets, and quality issues
* In-depth emphasis on drinking water treatment and water pollution control technologies
* Calculations specifically keyed to regulation requirements
* New to this edition: regulation updates, pellet softening, membrane filtration, disinfection by-products, health risks, wetlands, new and revised examples using field data
Inside this Updated Environmental Reference Tool
• Streams and Rivers • Lakes and Reservoirs • Groundwater • Fundamental and Treatment Plant Hydraulics • Public Water Supply • Wastewater Engineering • Appendices: Macro invertebrate Tolerance List • Well Function for Confined Aquifers • Solubility Product Constants for Solution at or near Room Temperature • Freundlich Adsorption Isotherm Constants for Toxic Organic Compounds • Conversion Factors
Security in the Transport of Radioactive Material
2. DESIGN AND EVALUATION OF SECURITY MEASURES
2.1. General approach
2.2. Basic security considerations
2.3. Security considerations for transport
2.5. Determination of security measures
3. ESTABLISHING SECURITY LEVELS FOR RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL IN TRANSPORT
4. GUIDANCE FOR SECURITY MEASURES IN THE TRANSPORT OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL
4.1. Prudent management practices
4.2. Basic security level
4.3. Enhanced security level
4.4. Additional security measures
4.5. International shipment
Available at : IAEA Publications (pdf)
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2010, 542 pages, ISBN 978-92-64-08027-8,
Type: Statistics Publication and CD-ROMs
In recognition of fundamental changes in the way governments approach energy-related environmental issues, the IEA has prepared this
publication on CO2 emissions from fuel combustion. This annual publication was first published in 1997 and has become an essential tool for
analysts and policy makers in many international for a such as the Conference of the Parties.
The sixteenth session of the Conference of the Parties to the Climate Change Convention (COP 16), in conjunction with the sixth meeting of
the Parties to the Kyoto Protocol (CMP 6), will be meeting in Cancún Mexico from 29 November to 10 December 2010.
The data in this book are designed to assist in understanding the evolution of the emissions of CO2 from 1971 to 2008 for more than 140
countries and regions by sector and by fuel. Emissions were calculated using IEA energy databases and the default methods and emission
factors from the Revised 1996 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories.
Available at : IEA Publications
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– CO2 Capture and Storage