Category Archives: Electronics & Instrumentation

Programmable Logic Controllers and Industrial Automation book (PLC book)

Programmable Logic Controllers and Industrial Automation book (PLC book)
PENRAM Publishing
Author: Madhuchhanda Mitra
Samarjit Sen Gupta


I Introduction

What Is A PLC
Technical Definition Of PLC
What Are Its Advantages
Characteristic Functions Of A PLC
Chronological Evolution Of PLC
Types Of PLC
Block Diagram Of PLC
Processor Software / Executive Software
Ladder Language


Input And Output Contact Program Symbols
Numbering System Of Inputs And Outputs
Program Format
Introduction To Logic
Ladder Design
Solved Problems
Solved Problems


Timer And Its Classification
Characteristics Of PLC Timer
Classification Of PLC Timer
On Delay And Off Delay Timers
Timer-On Delay
Timer Off Delay
Retentive And Non-Retentive Timers
Format of a Timer Instruction
Solved Problems
PLC Counter
Operation Of PLC Counter
Counter Parameters
Counter Instructions Overview
Solved Problem


Comparison Instructions
Discussions On Comparison Instructions
Solved Examples
Addressing Data Files
Format Of Logical Address
Addressing Format For Micrologic System
Different Addressing Types
Data Movement Instructions
Logical Instructions
Solved Problems
Mathematical Instructions
Solved Problems
Special Mathematical Instructions
Data Handling Instructions
Program Flow Control Instructions
Proportional Integral Derivative (PID) Instruction


Classification Of I/O
I/O System Overview
Practical I/O System And Its Mapping
Addressing Local And Expansion I/O
Input-Output Systems
Sinking And Sourcing
Discrete Input Module
Specifications Of Discrete Input Module
Discrete Output Modules
Operating Principles Of Output Modules
Specification Of Discrete Ouput Module
Sourcing And Sinking Output Module
Advantages And Disadvantages Of Output Modules
Specifications Of Analog Input Module
Types Of Analog Input Module
Special Input Modules
Analog Output Module
I/O Modules In Hazaradous Locations
Power Supply Requirements
Power Supply Configuration
Power Line Conditioner
Full Wave Bridge Rectifier


Evolution Of Industrial Control Process
Types Of Communication Interface
Types Of Networking Channels
Parallel Communication Interface
Serial Communication Interface
Balanced And Unbalanced Systems
Communication Mode
Synchronization And Timing In Communication
Synchronous And Asynchronous Transmissions Compared
Standard Interface
Serial Interface RS 232C
Serial Interface RS 422
Serial Interface EIA 485
Different Recommended Standards Compared
Software Protocol
Industrial Network
Network Topology
Media Access Methods
Open System Interconnection (OSI) Network Model
Network Components
Control Network Issues
Advantage Of Standardized Industrial Network
Industrial Network
Bus Network
Device Bus Network Vs. Process Bus Network
Controller Area Network (CAN)
Proprietory Network
Smart Distributed System
Interbus – S
Seriplex Bit-Wide Device Bus Network
AS-I Interface
Application Of Profibus For Real PLC Communication


Utility Of Automation
General Structure Of An Automated Process
Examples Of Some Simple Automated Systems
Selection Of PLC

Available   at     : PENRAM

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How To Troubleshoot With A PLC

How To Troubleshoot With A PLC

Neal Babcock,
How to Diagnosis and Correct Problems with RSLogix 500 and RSLogix 5000

Pub Year : 2009

With “How To Troubleshoot With A PLC”:

• You will learn how to SAFELY make changes to a system without overriding machine safety or personnel safety programming.
• You will understand the value of backing up the program, so that the machine can be restored to “as it was” condition
• You learn how to make temporary changes to a program to test new components or ideas
• You have to know how to QUICKLY get an idea of where the problems exists
• Provides you with more than enough “PLC basics” to get you going

“How To Troubleshoot With A PLC” removes the barriers that keep you from going online with a PLC system and correcting the problem.


PLCs – The Programmable Controller
The Allen-Bradley SLC Family of PLCs
SLC Rack
SLC Power Supply
SLC Processors
SLC I/O Modules
RSLogix 500 Ladder Logic
The Dialect of SLC PLCs
Connecting To The SLC And Going Online
The Allen-Bradley Family of ControlLogix PLCs
RSLogix 5000 Software
Getting The RSLogix 5000 Software
RSLogix 5000 Ladder Logic
Connecting To The ControlLogix PLC And Going Online
The Overall Method
Developing A Clear Goal And A Concise Plan
The 6 Steps to Creating a Clear Goal
The 6 Steps to Developing a Concise Plan
Troubleshooting And Diagnosing Existing Equipment
The Automated Drill Press
Evaluate the Symptoms
Troubleshooting the Logic
Searching the Program
Upgrading An Existing Machine With New Components Or Programming
The Automated Batching System
Know How to Get Back to Where You Started
Always Know How To Return A Program To Its Original State.
Modifying an Existing or Enhancing a Program
Confirming That The System Is Running Properly
What If You Don’t Have The Exact Replacement Part?
Troubleshooting With RSLogix 5000
Finding The Problem
Investigating An Analog Input
Tracking Down Intermittent Problems
Modifying A Program To Trap Faults With The Automation Controller
Accepting Rung Edits In RSLogix 5000
Forcing an Output
You Have Found The Problem – What Are The Options?
Troubleshooting Tips

Available   at     : Modern Media

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Automating with SIMATIC S7-1200

Automating with SIMATIC S7-1200

Hardware Components, Programming with STEP 7 Basic in LAD and FBD, Visualization with HMI Basic Panels


Introduction into STEP 7 Basic and into project handling
• Hardware components S7-1200
• Device configuration and network planning
• Operating conditions and running the user program
• Programming in LAD and FBD
• Variables and data types
• Description of all program functions
• Online operation, program test and diagnosis
• Communication via PROFINET and point-to-point connection
• Visualization with HMI basic panels

Available   at     : PUBLICIS

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Smart Grid Security Threats and How to Combat Them

Smart Grid Security Threats and How to Combat Them


The vision of the smart grid is to break down barriers between transmission and distribution, communications and back office systems to create a fully integrated network that provides diagnosis and resolution of problems as they arise and enables real time exchange of information between the utility and its customers.

Although smart grid security regulations and standards will continue to evolve as smart grid technology develops, utilities cannot afford to wait until standards are finalized to begin developing their smart grid implementation strategy and plan.

This report on Cyber Security and the Smart Grid looks at the potential security threats faced by the smart grid in the near future, and how to mitigate them.

Threats to the smart grid can be classified into three broad groups – system level threats that attempt to take down the grid, attempts to steal electrical service, and attempts to compromise the confidentiality of data on the system

Pages: 83
Publication Date: February 2010
Publisher: Energy Business Reports

Table of Contents

Executive Summary

Introduction to Smart Grid

What is the Smart Grid?
Who is developing the Smart Grid?
Technologies Involved in the Smart Grid and What They Offer
Distributed Resources
Power Grid Management
Customer Power Management
Importance of Wireless Technology to the Smart Grid
Smart Grid and Personal Information
Privacy Issues with the Smart Grid
Latest Developments

Benefits of a Smart Grid

Cyber Security in the Electric System
Building a Strategy for Smart Grid Cyber Security
Security Fundamentals of the Smart Grid
Looking at the Threats Facing the Smart Grid
Looking at System-level Threats
Problem of Theft of Service
Privacy and Confidentiality Threats

Security Challenges Facing the Smart Grid

Internet Protocol and Smart Grid Security

Vulnerabilities Facing the Smart Grid
SCADA Security
Security of the Substation
Use of Public Telecom Infrastructure
Network Management from Remote Nodes
Lack of Authentication
Authentication Bypass
Slave Meter Data Tampering
Slave Meter Unauthorized Disconnection
Insecure Protocol Implementation
Firmware Upgrade Vulnerabilities
Input Validation
Security of the Current Smart Grid
AMI Security
Securing the Wireless Network
NASPI Security
Considering Potential Attack Scenarios
Present Risk of Attack

Available    at    : EnergyBusinessReport

Working Safely in Radiography

Working Safely in Radiography


Previously published by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, this new edition is now being published by ASNT. Includes updated and revised information on X-ray safety, current regulations, current radiation units and quantities and new photographs. The book is ideal for companies who need to meet the NRC requirements for training radiographers.

Author(s): McGuire, Steven A.; Peabody, Carol A.; Leeman, Cynthia M. (ed.)
Publisher: ASNT
Year: 2004
Pages: 144
ISBN: 1-57117-231-1

Available  at   : ASNT Shop

SCADA Systems in World Gas & Oil Pipeline Operations and Gas Distribution Utilities

SCADA Systems in World Gas & Oil Pipeline Operations and Gas Distribution Utilities 2005-2007-All 3 Volumes


This study is the third worldwide study of gas and oil pipeline operations and gas distribution utilities (LDCs).

This new series will provide an in-depth appraisal of the central and remote site hardware, applications software, and communications services that oil and gas pipeline operations and gas distribution utilities will be requesting during their next round of procurements for SCADA systems.

The research study results in a comprehensive and informative series of reports on control systems usage patterns and plans of pipeline operations and gas distribution utilities worldwide. The research program will assess the market sizes and will contain projections on a world-region basis, for the next several years. A separate report profiling more than 50 suppliers of oil/gas pipeline SCADA-related systems, software and services will also be

3-volume set:

Volume 1-Global Summary of Research Findings
Volume 2-Market Analysis/Forecast
Volume 3-Supplier Profiles

Available  at    : EnergyBusinessReport Shop

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Thermo-mechanical Analysis of Fire Doors Subjected to a Fire Endurance Test

Thermo-mechanical Analysis of Fire Doors Subjected to a Fire Endurance Test


Fires doors are subjected to standard fire tests as a means of evaluating fire resistance. In this study, the thermal and mechanical response of steel double fire doors exposed to high temperatures was modeled using finite element software. The model included the necessary complexity of the product and test setup along with the temperature dependency of the constituent materials. For the thermal solution, a transient analysis was carried out while for the mechanical solution, it was found that a nonlinear steady state analysis was sufficient to capture the qualitative behavior of the fire doors seen during the test. The challenges of validating a numerical model with the limited data available from the standard fire test are described.

Available at  : SAGE Journals

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Thin Film Bulk Acoustic Wave Devices

Thin Film Bulk Acoustic Wave Devices


Thin film bulk acoustic wave (BAW) resonators and filters operating in the GHz range are used in mobile phones for the most demanding filtering applications and complement the surface acoustic wave (SAW) based filters. Their main ad-vantages are small size and high performance at frequencies above 2 GHz. This work concentrates on the characterization, performance optimization, and modelling techniques of thin film BAW devices.

Laser interferometric vibration measurements together with plate wave dispersion modeling are used to extract the full set of elastic material parameters for sputter deposited ZnO, demonstrating  a method for obtaining material data needed for accurate simulation of the devices.

The effectiveness of the acoustic interference reflector used to isolate the vibration from the substrate is studied by 1-D modeling, 2-D finite element method and by electrical and laser interferometric measurements. It is found that the Q-value of reflector-based BAW resonators operating at 2 GHz is limited to approximately 2000 by mechanisms other than leakage through the reflector.  Suppression of spurious resonances in ZnO resonators is studied in depth by modeling and measurements. It is verified that the approximate mode orthogonality is behind the suppression in boundary frame  type ZnO devices operating in the piston mode, but also another narrow band mode suppression mechanism is found.

A plate wave dispersion based 2-D simulation scheme for laterally acoustically coupled BAW resonator filters is developed and employed in designing of experimental devices, which show both good agreement with the model predictions and a remarkable 4.9 % relative bandwidth.

Available at : Book Store (free for digital version)

Code of Practice for Control Systems involving Programmable Electronic Products & Systems – ETCI

Code of Practice for Control Systems involving Programmable Electronic Products & Systems
by ETCI (Electro-Technical Council of Ireland)


ET204This Code of Practice applies to Control Systems involving programmable electronic equipment. It does not cover the use of programmable electronic systems (PES) for specific safety related applications, where the safety integrity of the plant is to be assured by the PES. E.g. burner system, High Tension Switching/Interlock Systems.

This Code of Practice is intended to give guidance on the design, programming, installation, commissioning and maintenance of Control Systems involving Programmable Electronic Systems for the automation of machines or processes. It is intended to cover the interaction of hardware and software in order to ensure the correct and safe operation of the system as a whole.

Available  at   : ETCI Publications

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Amazon Buyer Reviews

(1) I find this book very handy, has most commonly used tables from NEC 08. The pages are very heavy laminate, not paper like the Ugly’s. Also has other useful information like master bundle sizes of EMT and PVC. I would recommend this reference to a foreman or a journeyman looking for a small quick reference guide.

(2) I have the 2007 version also. I like the yellow colors in this, its harder on the eyes but easier to read in low light. It isnt a silly quiz book like the useless Ugly’s book. I’ve already had basic electronics and math, I want a quick ref for code, CAT-5 wiring, and motor hookups,. I dont want a fill-in-the-blank quiz section as 25% of Ugly’s book is.

Also, this POCKET book FITS IN YOUR POCKET. I cant even fit an Ugly’s in my back pocket unless I went up 3 sizes from a 34″ waist