Category Archives: Electrical Engineering

Programmable Logic Controllers and Industrial Automation book (PLC book)

Programmable Logic Controllers and Industrial Automation book (PLC book)
PENRAM Publishing
Author: Madhuchhanda Mitra
Samarjit Sen Gupta

Contents

I Introduction

What Is A PLC
Technical Definition Of PLC
What Are Its Advantages
Characteristic Functions Of A PLC
Chronological Evolution Of PLC
Types Of PLC
Block Diagram Of PLC
Processor Software / Executive Software
Multitasking
Languages
Ladder Language

II BIT LOGIC INSTRUCTIONS

Introduction
Input And Output Contact Program Symbols
Numbering System Of Inputs And Outputs
Program Format
Introduction To Logic
Ladder Design
Solved Problems
Exercise
Switches
Solved Problems

III PLC TIMERS AND COUNTERS

Timer And Its Classification
Characteristics Of PLC Timer
Classification Of PLC Timer
On Delay And Off Delay Timers
Timer-On Delay
Timer Off Delay
Retentive And Non-Retentive Timers
Format of a Timer Instruction
Solved Problems
Exercise
PLC Counter
Operation Of PLC Counter
Counter Parameters
Counter Instructions Overview
Solved Problem
Exercises

IV ADVANCED INSTRUCTIONS

Introduction
Comparison Instructions
Discussions On Comparison Instructions
Solved Examples
Addressing Data Files
Format Of Logical Address
Addressing Format For Micrologic System
Different Addressing Types
Data Movement Instructions
Logical Instructions
Solved Problems
Mathematical Instructions
Solved Problems
Special Mathematical Instructions
Data Handling Instructions
Program Flow Control Instructions
Proportional Integral Derivative (PID) Instruction

V PLC INPUT OUTPUT (I/O) MODULES AND POWER SUPPLY

Introduction
Classification Of I/O
I/O System Overview
Practical I/O System And Its Mapping
Addressing Local And Expansion I/O
Input-Output Systems
Sinking And Sourcing
Discrete Input Module
Specifications Of Discrete Input Module
Discrete Output Modules
Operating Principles Of Output Modules
Specification Of Discrete Ouput Module
Sourcing And Sinking Output Module
Advantages And Disadvantages Of Output Modules
Specifications Of Analog Input Module
Types Of Analog Input Module
Special Input Modules
Analog Output Module
I/O Modules In Hazaradous Locations
Power Supply Requirements
Power Supply Configuration
Power Line Conditioner
Full Wave Bridge Rectifier
Filters

VI INDUSTRIAL COMMUNICATION AND NETWORKING

Introduction
Evolution Of Industrial Control Process
Types Of Communication Interface
Types Of Networking Channels
Parallel Communication Interface
Serial Communication Interface
Balanced And Unbalanced Systems
Communication Mode
Synchronization And Timing In Communication
Synchronous And Asynchronous Transmissions Compared
Standard Interface
Serial Interface RS 232C
Serial Interface RS 422
Serial Interface EIA 485
Different Recommended Standards Compared
Software Protocol
Industrial Network
Network Topology
Media Access Methods
Open System Interconnection (OSI) Network Model
Network Components
Control Network Issues
Advantage Of Standardized Industrial Network
Industrial Network
Bus Network
Device Bus Network Vs. Process Bus Network
Controller Area Network (CAN)
Devicenet
Controlnet
Ethernet
Protocol
Proprietory Network
Smart Distributed System
Interbus – S
Seriplex Bit-Wide Device Bus Network
AS-I Interface
FOUNDATION FIELDBUS
Profibus
Profibus-Dp
Profibus-Fms
Profibus-Pa
Application Of Profibus For Real PLC Communication

VII INDUSTRIAL AUTOMATION

Introduction
Utility Of Automation
General Structure Of An Automated Process
Examples Of Some Simple Automated Systems
Selection Of PLC

Available   at     : PENRAM

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How To Troubleshoot With A PLC

How To Troubleshoot With A PLC

Neal Babcock,
How to Diagnosis and Correct Problems with RSLogix 500 and RSLogix 5000

Pub Year : 2009

With “How To Troubleshoot With A PLC”:

• You will learn how to SAFELY make changes to a system without overriding machine safety or personnel safety programming.
• You will understand the value of backing up the program, so that the machine can be restored to “as it was” condition
• You learn how to make temporary changes to a program to test new components or ideas
• You have to know how to QUICKLY get an idea of where the problems exists
• Provides you with more than enough “PLC basics” to get you going

“How To Troubleshoot With A PLC” removes the barriers that keep you from going online with a PLC system and correcting the problem.

Contents

Introduction
PLCs – The Programmable Controller
The Allen-Bradley SLC Family of PLCs
Hardware
SLC Rack
SLC Power Supply
SLC Processors
SLC I/O Modules
RSLogix 500 Ladder Logic
The Dialect of SLC PLCs
Connecting To The SLC And Going Online
The Allen-Bradley Family of ControlLogix PLCs
RSLogix 5000 Software
Getting The RSLogix 5000 Software
RSLogix 5000 Ladder Logic
Connecting To The ControlLogix PLC And Going Online
The Overall Method
Developing A Clear Goal And A Concise Plan
The 6 Steps to Creating a Clear Goal
The 6 Steps to Developing a Concise Plan
Troubleshooting And Diagnosing Existing Equipment
The Automated Drill Press
Evaluate the Symptoms
Troubleshooting the Logic
Searching the Program
Upgrading An Existing Machine With New Components Or Programming
The Automated Batching System
Know How to Get Back to Where You Started
Always Know How To Return A Program To Its Original State.
Modifying an Existing or Enhancing a Program
Confirming That The System Is Running Properly
What If You Don’t Have The Exact Replacement Part?
Troubleshooting With RSLogix 5000
Finding The Problem
Investigating An Analog Input
Tracking Down Intermittent Problems
Modifying A Program To Trap Faults With The Automation Controller
Accepting Rung Edits In RSLogix 5000
Forcing an Output
You Have Found The Problem – What Are The Options?
Troubleshooting Tips

Available   at     : Modern Media

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Automating with SIMATIC S7-1200

Automating with SIMATIC S7-1200

Hardware Components, Programming with STEP 7 Basic in LAD and FBD, Visualization with HMI Basic Panels

Contents

Introduction into STEP 7 Basic and into project handling
• Hardware components S7-1200
• Device configuration and network planning
• Operating conditions and running the user program
• Programming in LAD and FBD
• Variables and data types
• Description of all program functions
• Online operation, program test and diagnosis
• Communication via PROFINET and point-to-point connection
• Visualization with HMI basic panels

Available   at     : PUBLICIS

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Solar-powered Water Heaters – Plumbing Systems and Design

Solar-powered Water Heaters.
Plumbing Systems and Design 2006; Vol. 5: No. 4
by Stenqvist, James E

Although a far cry from their counterparts of the 1970s, solar heating systems still present a significant up-front expense and can be less than aesthetically pleasing. Both cost and design improve as owners move toward green building and as architects incorporate solar components into more projects. This article presents the basics of solar-powered hot water heaters, which differ from traditional water heaters primarily in their power source. Major components include solar collector(s), circulation systems, storage tanks, a backup heating system, and control system. Direct systems (open loop) circulate domestic water between collectors and storage tanks. Direct systems can be downdrain or recirculating. Indirect systems (closed loop) circulate liquid (water, glycol) as a heating medium. Depending on their components, indirect systems can be more expensive and require more maintenance, but also have a number of advantages. Web-based resources are presented, along with a checklist including design criteria, types of systems, installation considerations, and mounting systems.

Available  at   : ASPE Publications

Future of Electrical Energy Storage

Future of Electrical Energy Storage

Descriptions

The Future of Electrical Energy Storage is a management report that analyses the future of electrical energy storage and how the advancing use of renewable energy, particularly wind power, will change the perception of storage and lead to significant increase it its use.

Understand the key drivers and resistors of electrical energy storage and its impact on the landscape with the help of this report…

Some key findings from this report

• There is just 90GW of electricity storage capacity in operation – around 3% of global capacity, which is much lower than in other energy industries.
• As an emerging group of technologies, estimates on the cost of electrical energy storage vary widely, on average by more than 100% and typically much higher in battery technologies.
• Capacitors are the most efficient of the existing electrical energy storage technologies with a round trip efficiency of >95%, while hydrogen storage is, by a large margin, the least efficient technology.
• The US and Japan are the global leaders in large scale pumped storage hydropower plants with 9 and 12 plants respectively, compared to just 1 each in the UK, France and Australia.
• Based on an analysis of fixed and variable costs, batteries are currently the most expensive technologies – a key limiting factor compared to more mature alternatives such as pumped storage hydropower.

This new report will enable you to:

• Identify the leading technologies for electrical energy storage, their development status and application with this report’s in–depth analysis of the 7 leading electrical energy technologies (Pumped-storage hydropower, compressed air energy storage, batteries, flywheels, hydrogen storage, capacitors and superconducting magnetic energy storage), their development and future application.
• Compare the cost of different electrical energy storage technologies in terms of capital, fixed and variable costs from data found in this report.
• Understand the economics of electrical energy storage and the key factors that will drive economic competitiveness of each technology.
• Assess the future potential for energy storage and the role of growing renewable energy capacity as a market driver.

Available  at   : EnergyBusinessReport

Fundamentals of Hydraulic Engineering Systems

Fundamentals of Hydraulic Engineering Systems

Description

This book provides a fundamental treatment of engineering hydraulics. It is intended to bridge the gap between basic principles and techniques applied to design and analysis of hydraulic engineering systems. This text exposes students to many problems commonly encountered in practice, various solution scenarios (e.g., design formulas, tables, and computer software) that are written by one of the largest commercial vendors of hydrology and hydraulics software.

Available   at    : Amazon

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Heat Transfer Applications for the Practicing Engineer

Heat Transfer Applications for the Practicing Engineer

Description

This book serves as a training tool for individuals in industry and academia involved with heat transfer applications. Although the literature is inundated with texts emphasizing theory and theoretical derivations, the goal of this book is to present the subject of heat transfer from a strictly pragmatic point of view.

The book is divided into four Parts: Introduction, Principles, Equipment Design Procedures and Applications, and ABET-related Topics. The first Part provides a series of chapters concerned with introductory topics that are required when solving most engineering problems, including those in heat transfer. The second Part of the book is concerned with heat transfer principles. Topics that receive treatment include Steady-state Heat Conduction, Unsteady-state Heat Conduction, Forced Convection, Free Convection, Radiation, Boiling and Condensation, and Cryogenics. Part three (considered the heart of the book) addresses heat transfer equipment design procedures and applications. In addition to providing a detailed treatment of the various types of heat exchangers, this part also examines the impact of entropy calculations on exchanger design, and operation, maintenance and inspection (OM&I), plus refractory and insulation effects. The concluding Part of the text examines ABET (Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology) related topics of concern, including economies and finance, numerical methods, open-ended problems, ethics, environmental management, and safety and accident management.

Available   at    : Amazon

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Fundamentals of Eddy Current Testing

Fundamentals of Eddy Current Testing

Descriptions

This book provides a thorough examination of the basic theory and principles behind eddy current testing.Contents: electrical theory; electromagnetism; inductive reactance and impedance; eddy current test principles; coils, instruments and standards; and impedance-plane response.

Author(s): Hagemaier, Donald J.
Publisher: ASNT
Year: 1990
Pages: 92

Available  at    : ASNT Shop

NECA 400-2007, Standard for Installing and Maintaining Switchboards (ANSI)

NECA 400-2007, Standard for Installing and Maintaining Switchboards (ANSI)

Description:

This standard describes installation procedures for deadfront distribution switchboards rated 600 volts or less. This standard also covers periodic routine maintenance procedures for switchboards and special procedures to be used after adverse circumstances, such as a short circuit, ground-fault, or immersion in water. NECA 400 is approved as an American National Standard (ANS).

Available at    : NECA Store

Quality Lighting Design and Installation

Quality Lighting Design & Installation

Description:

When vision meets reality, problems can occur that can compromise design integrity. Today’s approach to building delivery – including value engineering and highly compressed project schedules – often leaves lighting to be one of the last items installed. For the contractor to properly interpret and build the architect/engineer’s vision, the design must be understandable, practical in installation, consistent with other building design features and compatible with the owner’s budget. The vision must be clearly articulated and reflect all applicable design factors – from codes to environmental conditions, and other building systems and structural elements – with product choices containing value-based rationales that are defensible. This issue of NECA’ Electrical Design Library examines how lighting designers and contractors employ standards to deliver effective lighting.

Format:
Booklet, 2002

Available  at   : NECANET Store

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