Category Archives: Chemical Engineering

Plumbing Design for Health Care Facilities – Plumbing Systems and Design

Plumbing Design for Health Care Facilities
Plumbing Systems and Design 22006; Vol. 5: No. 2
by Anon.

This continuing education article covers a myriad of topics that pertain to the design of plumbing systems for health care facilities, laboratories, and research facilities. Major topics include plumbing fixtures and related equipment, laboratory waste and vent systems, the water supply system, and pure-water systems. Regardless of the system under consideration, one necessary task is repeated time and again: consultation. Consult with the architect; consult and meet with the facility staff and professionals; consult with the equipment manufacturers authorized representative; consult with local administrative authorities. Health-care facilities may be exempt from certain codes, but subject to standards that do not apply to other types of buildings. The article begins with general requirements, which is a laundry list of standards that apply to plumbing systems in health care facilities. Fixtures and related equipment are then discussed relative to specific areas of the health-care facility including general use and public areas, patient rooms, ward rooms, nurseries, emergency rooms, intensive-care rooms, examination rooms, treatment rooms, physical therapy rooms, other facilities for the treatment of patients. Within the context of each of these specific areas, there is a discussion of the various plumbing fixtures that are required, the need for particular materials, and specialized requirements that may apply. Fixture types are listed by medical-care area in a lengthy table. Important considerations for kitchens and laundries in health-care facilities include equipment utility requirements. Rough-in drawings of equipment in these areas are usually provided by the architect or consultant. Laboratory rooms can require a variety of sinks, washing equipment, service outlets for laboratory air and gas, and emergency showers and eye-wash stations. The usual location of equipment within a laboratory room or series of rooms is detailed. A small section of the article is devoted to plumbing needs of specialized equipment such as dialysis machines, electron microscopes, stills for producing distilled water, sterilizers, film processing equipment, dental equipment, etc. The next major section covers laboratories, which in addition to sanitary drainage, require specialized drainage systems for the removal of corrosive waste. Conditions under which special waste and vent systems are required are detailed. The costs and benefits of different types of corrosive waste system piping are discussed and include borosilicate glass, polypropylene, double-containment piping, and high-silicon cast iron. Sizing should take into consideration both future expansion and cleaning. As with waste piping, vent piping must be made of approved corrosion-resistant material. Neutralization tanks are often necessary to treat acid waste prior to disposal into a public sewer. A tank sizing table is presented. Acid-waste solids interceptors are discussed, as is acid-waste metering that is required by some local authorities. Laboratory sinks are provided with p-traps, drum traps, or centrifugal drum traps. The final topic is water supply systems for medical and health-care facilities. Specifically, potable, non-potable, and pure water systems are discussed. General considerations include dual domestic water services, water-conservation provisions, use of supply tanks to ameliorate fluctuating supply and unusual demand, diversity factors for sizing the system, and protection of potable water from contamination. Cold and hot water, chilled water, controlled-temperature water, and hot water recirculation are all discussed under the heading of potable water systems. Pure-water systems include distillation, deionization, and reverse osmosis. Pure-water systems have particular piping requirements and the costs and benefits of a number of types are presented. Non-potable water systems are touched upon.

Available  at   : ASPE Publications

A Health Assessment of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Accident

A Health Assessment of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Accident
Fred A. Mettler, Jr., and , Jonathan E. Briggs
Radiation and Public Perception,
Chapter 13, pp 161–168
Pub Date : May, 1995


In 1989 the then Soviet government requested that the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) assess the steps it took to protect the health of villagers in areas surrounding the site of the 1986 Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident. The International Chernobyl Project (ICP) performed the assessment. “Task 4” of the ICP studied sample populations from three Soviet republics. Teams of physicians from several nations visited seven “control” (uncontaminated) and six “contaminated” villages to obtain in-depth medical histories on and to perform extensive physical examinations of over 1300 persons. No adverse health effects directly attributable to radiation were found by Task 4. Many of the villagers demonstrated increased stress and anxiety related to the accident, but no significant differences were seen between residents of the contaminated and the control villages. However, a high incidence of hypertension, poor dental health, and obesity in the population samples from all the villages did exist. Although it was too early to see increases in leukemia and solid tumors in the populations examined, the authors expect that there will be increases in the incidence of both these types of cancers over the next several decades.

Available  at   : ACS Publications

Laboratory Pure Water

Laboratory Pure Water
Plumbing Systems and Design 2005; Vol. 4: No. 6
by Stenqvist, James E.


Water is everywhere. One might think water from the tap that is clear and tastes all right is pure, but it is not enough so for laboratory use. Water picks up pollutants when it touches the ground?s surface and minerals when it permeates the ground. It also contains dissolved gases and dirt from the air. Contaminants that might be found in water include particulates, dissolved inorganic solids and gases, dissolved organics, micro-organisms, and pyrogens. Standards for laboratory pure water are published by several scientific, medical, or other groups. The National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards, which is now known as the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute, lists four categories, from the purest to water with certain contaminants removed. When the type of water needed is determined, a process can be set up to create it. They include reverse osmosis, filtration, and electrodialysis. The various processes are explained, and there is an accompanying checklist for design process, flow rates, distribution, distribution piping, storage tank, water hardness classifications, filtration, commissioning, pipe materials, and validation. Attached is a water pipe sizing table.

Available  at   : ASPE Publications

Heat Transfer Applications for the Practicing Engineer

Heat Transfer Applications for the Practicing Engineer


This book serves as a training tool for individuals in industry and academia involved with heat transfer applications. Although the literature is inundated with texts emphasizing theory and theoretical derivations, the goal of this book is to present the subject of heat transfer from a strictly pragmatic point of view.

The book is divided into four Parts: Introduction, Principles, Equipment Design Procedures and Applications, and ABET-related Topics. The first Part provides a series of chapters concerned with introductory topics that are required when solving most engineering problems, including those in heat transfer. The second Part of the book is concerned with heat transfer principles. Topics that receive treatment include Steady-state Heat Conduction, Unsteady-state Heat Conduction, Forced Convection, Free Convection, Radiation, Boiling and Condensation, and Cryogenics. Part three (considered the heart of the book) addresses heat transfer equipment design procedures and applications. In addition to providing a detailed treatment of the various types of heat exchangers, this part also examines the impact of entropy calculations on exchanger design, and operation, maintenance and inspection (OM&I), plus refractory and insulation effects. The concluding Part of the text examines ABET (Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology) related topics of concern, including economies and finance, numerical methods, open-ended problems, ethics, environmental management, and safety and accident management.

Available   at    : Amazon

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Security in the Transport of Radioactive Material

Security in the Transport of Radioactive Material

2.1. General approach
2.2. Basic security considerations
2.3. Security considerations for transport
2.4. Roles
2.5. Determination of security measures


4.1. Prudent management practices
4.2. Basic security level
4.3. Enhanced security level
4.4. Additional security measures
4.5. International shipment

Available at  : IAEA Publications (pdf)

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Handbook of Tritium Handling and Safe Storage

Basic Corrosion Technology for Scientists and Engineers (2nd Edition)

Basic Corrosion Technology for Scientists and Engineers (2nd Edition)

Published in association with the Institute of Materials, Minerals and Mining
ISBN: 978 1 861251 38 1
224 pages

Author: E Mattsson


This user-friendly survey of the corrosion of metals does not require a deep knowledge of chemistry, but acts as an invaluable compendium of accessible information on the different types of corrosion, electrochemical concepts, environments and methods of protection and prevention, as well as recommendations for further information.

Available   at    : Maney Publishing

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Corrosion Control and Treatment Manual

Control of Corrosion in Cooling Waters

Control of Corrosion in Cooling Waters

Publisher: Maney Publishing
ISBN: 978-1-904350-34-7
No. Pages: 94
Author/Editor:Edited by: Harston, J.D.; Ropital, F.


The joint CEFRACOR – SCI commission ‘Corrosion in the chemicals industry’ has undertaken the task of developing corrosion prevention tools for chemical engineers. A number of working groups have been set up to treat subjects of general interest, and studies have already been published on the degradation of the fluorinated polymers and corrosion beneath insulation. This treatise on the control of corrosion problems in cooling waters forms part of this work.

Contents :
Introduction, The Circuits, The Water, The Principal Problems Arising from the Use of Untreated Water, Treatment of Supply Waters, Treatment of Water Circuits, Implementation of Treatment, Monitoring and Inspection, Malfunctions and Remedial Measures, Legal Aspects, Examples of Treatments and Monitoring

Contents :
Introduction, The Circuits, The Water, The Principal Problems Arising from the Use of Untreated Water, Treatment of Supply Waters, Treatment of Water Circuits, Implementation of Treatment, Monitoring and Inspection, Malfunctions and Remedial Measures, Legal Aspects, Examples of  Treatments and Monitoring

Available   at    : Knovel

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Self Assessment of Radiation-Safety Programs

Self Assessment of Radiation-Safety Programs


This Report provides guidance on establishing a self-assessment program to ensure the timely self identification and correction of deficiencies in a radiation-safety program, and to improve the performance of the program by ensuring that its design and implemen-tation are effective and efficient. Implementing the self-assessment process is an important procedure recommended for all institutions that use radioactive materials or radiation-generating devices. These institutions range from universities or research laboratories using small radioactive sources to large nuclear power plants, nuclear fuel-cycle facilities, and national government laboratories. The current Report provides guidance for individuals who have the responsibility of developing and implementing a self-assessment program at their institutions. All aspects of an effective self-assessment program are described, including the identification of responsible individuals, the types and levels of self assessments to be performed, self-assessment planning and techniques, reporting of results, and the implementation and verification of corrective actions identified through a self-assessment process. In addition to supporting a safe working environment, a comprehensive self-assessment program serves to ensure regulatory compliance and conformity of operations with the goals of the radiation-safety program, to establish a workplace safety and continuous improvement culture, and to identify noteworthy practices and exemplary performance by employees working with radioactive materials and sources.

Available at    : NCRP Publications

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Decision Making in Engineering Design

Decision Making in Engineering Design

Related to Decision Making in Engineering Design :
— Foundations and fundamentals of making decisions in product design;
— Clear examples of effective application of Decision-Based Design;
— State-of-the-art theory and practice in Decision-Based Design;
— Thoughtful insights on validation, uncertainty, preferences, distributed design, demand modeling, and other issues;
— End-of-chapter exercise problems to facilitate learning.


Front Matter Open Access
* Section 1
* 1. The Need for Design Theory Research Open Access
* 2. The Open Workshop on Decision-Based Design

Section 2: Decision Theory in Engineering Design
* 3. Utility Function Fundamentals
* 4. Normative Decision Analysis in Engineering Design
* 5. Fundamentals and Implications of Decision-Making
* 6. Preference Modeling in Engineering Design

Section 3: Concept Generation
* 7. Stimulating Creative Design Alternatives Using Customer Values
* 8. Generating Design Alternatives across Abstraction Levels

Section 4: Demand Modeling
* 9. Fundamentals of Economic Demand Modeling: Lessons from Travel Demand Analysis
* 10. Discrete Choice Demand Modeling for Decision-Based Design
* 11. The Role of Demand Modeling in Product Planning

Section 5: Views on Aggregating Preferences in Engineering Design
* 12. Multi-Attribute Utility Analysis of Conflicting Preferences
* 13. On the Legitimacy of Pairwise Comparisons
* 14. Multi-Attribute Decision-Making Using Hypothetical Equivalents and Inequivalents
* 15. Multiobjective Decision-Making Using Physical Programming

Section 6: Making Product Design Decisions in an Enterprise Context
* 16. Decision-Based Collaborative Optimization of Multidisciplinary Systems
* 17. A Designer’s View to Economics and Finance
* 18. Multilevel Optimization for Enterprise-Driven Decision-Based Product Design
* 19. A Decision-Based Perspective on the Vehicle Development Process
* 20. Product Development and Decision Production Systems

Section 7: Decision Making in Decentralized Design Environments
* 21. Game Theory in Decision-Making
* 22. Analysis of Negotiation Protocols for Distributed Design
* 23. The Dynamics of Decentralized Design Processes: The Issue of Convergence and Its Impact on Decision-Making
* 24. Value Aggregation for Collaborative Design Decision-Making

Section 8: Validation of Design Methods
* 25. The Validation Square: How Does One Verify and Validate a Design Method?
* 26. Model-Based Validation of Design Methods
* 27. Development and Use of Design Method Validation Criteria

Available at :   ASME Book Store

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